TESDA Rationalization Plan
(Based on EO 366)
Table of Contents
|B. Rationalization Principles||
|C. Rationalization Process||
|II. TESDA’s Mandate||
|III. TESDA’s Vision, Mission, and Value Statement||
|IV. TESDA’s Core Business||
|V. Structural and Functional Shifts||
|A. Existing Structure||
|B. Rationalized Structure||
|VI. Rationalized Staffing Pattern||
|VII. Rationalized Personnel Complement||
|VIII. Rationalization Plan Summary||
|A. Providing Equitable Manning Via Scrap and Build Strategy||
|B. Retiring Personnel Under EO 366||
|C. Addressing 41 Additional Position Requirements||
|A. DOLE Form 1 (Structural and Organizational Shift)||
|B. DOLE Form 2 (Staffing Pattern Shift)|
|C. DOLE Form 3 (Proposed Personnel Placement)||
|D. DOLE Form 4 (List of Redundant,Obsolete and Unnecessary Positions Including Affected Personnel||
|A. EO 366||
|B. IRR of EO 366||
|C. TESDA Orders (CMT Creation, etc.)||
|Competency Assessment and Certification Office||
|Corporate Affairs Office||
|Career Guidance and Incentives Division||
|Corporate Information and Advocacy Division||
|Change Management Team||
|Central Office-Regional Office-Provincial Office-Training Institutions||
|Curriculum and Training Aids Division||
|Deputy Director General||
|Department of Labor and Employment||
|Financial and Administrative Services Division||
|Facilities and Equipment Management Division||
|Field Operations Monitoring Division||
|General Services Division||
|Human Resource Management Division||
|Information and Communication Technology||
|Korea-Philippines Vocational Training Center||
|Manpower Information Systems Division||
|National TVET Trainers Development Institutes||
|Office of Apprenticeship||
|Office of the Chief of Services for Administration||
|Office of the Deputy Director General Field Operations||
|Office of the Deputy Director General Sectoral TVET||
|Office of the Director General||
|Office of the Executive Director||
|Office of Formal TVET||
|Office of Non-Formal TVET||
|Office of the Provincial Director||
|Office of the Regional Director||
|Office of TESDA Institutions||
|Office of TESDA Technology Institute||
|Programs Development Division||
|Policy/Program Coordination Division||
|Policy and Planning Division||
|Policy Research & Evaluation Division||
|Procurement and Supply Division||
|Programs and Systems Development Division||
|Personal Services Itemization and Plantilla of Personnel||
|Provincial TESD Center||
|Quality and Data Management Division||
|Qualifications and Standards Office||
|Regional Coordination Office||
|Research and Evaluation Division||
|Regional Operations Division||
|Regional TESD Center||
|Systems Development and Networking Division||
|Skills Standards and Certification Office||
|Skills Testing and Certification Division||
|Standards and Test Development Division||
|Technical Education and Skills Development Authority||
|Technical Education and Skills Development Specialist||
|Technical Research and Development Division||
|TVET Systems Development Office||
|TESDA Technology Institute Manpower Operation Division||
|Technical Vocational Education and Training||
|Agusan del Sur School of Arts and Trades||
|Alcantara National Trade School||
|Aparri School of Arts and Trades||
|Arteche National Agricultural School||
|Baguio City School of Arts and Trades||
|Balangiga National Agricultural School||
|Balicuatro College of Arts and Trades||
|Bangui School of Fisheries||
|Bondoc Peninsula Technological Institute||
|Bulusan National Vocational Technical School||
|Buyabod School of Arts and Trades||
|Cabugao School of Handicraft and Cottage Industries||
|Cabugcayan National School of Arts and Trades||
|Cagayan de Oro (BUGO) School of Arts & Trades||
|Calubian National Vocational School||
|Camarines Sur Institute of Fisheries and Marine Science||
|Camiguin School of Arts and Trades||
|Carmelo de los Cientos Sr.National Technical School||
|Concepcion Vocational School||
|Davao National Agricultural School||
|Dipolog School of Fisheries||
|Dumalag Vocational Technical School||
|General Santos National School of Arts and Trades||
|Gonzalo Puyat School of Arts and Trades||
|Isabela School of Arts and Trades||
|Jacobo Z. Gonzales Memorial School of Arts and Trades||
|Kabasalan National Vocational School||
|Kasibu National Agricultural School||
|Kinoguitan National Agricultural High School||
|Lanao del Norte National Agro-Industrial School||
|Las Navas Agro-Industrial High School||
|Lasam National Agricultural School||
|Lazi National Agricultural School||
|Leon Ganzon Polytechnic College||
|Luciano Millan Memorial School of Arts and Trades||
|Lupon School of Fisheries||
|Maddela Institute of Technology||
|Marcos Agro-Industrial School||
|Marikina Institute of Science and Technology||
|Masbate School of Fisheries||
|Mati School of Arts and Trades||
|National Center of Technical Education and Staff Development||
|National Institute for Tech-Voch Education and Training||
|New Lucena Polytechnic College||
|Northern Mindanao School of Fisheries||
|Oroquita Agro-Industrial School||
|Pangasinan College of Fisheries||
|Pangasinan School of Arts and Trades||
|Passi Trade School||
|Puerto Princesa School of Arts and Trades||
|Quezon National Agricultural School||
|Salvador Trade School||
|Samar National School of Arts and Trades||
|San Francisco Institute of Science and Technology||
|San Vicente Pilot School for Philippine Craftsmen||
|Simeon Suan Vocational and Technical College||
|Sorsogon National Agricultural School||
|Southern Isabela College of Arts and Trades||
|Surallah National Agricultural School||
|Surigao del Norte College of Agriculture and Technology||
|TESDA Women Center||
|Torrijos Poblacion School of Arts and Trades||
|Wangan National Agricultural School||
TESDA Rationalization Plan
To improve government performance and institute reforms to transform the bureaucracy into an efficient and result-oriented structure, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo issued EO 366. The Executive Order directs a strategic review of the organizations and its operations of the Executive Branch and provides options and incentives for employees who may be affected by the rationalization of functions in government agencies.
In response to EO 366, TESDA maximized the opportunity to provide a structure and manning that will ensure high quality provision of services to its internal and external customers. TESDA strengthened its core functions and widened its clientele/geographic coverage by consolidating the resources and optimizing outcomes in the Central Office-Regional Office-Provincial Office-Technology Institution (CO-RO-PO-TI). It is expected that with this undertaking, this will strategically position the organization towards gaining grounds in “Winning the Future in TVET” as a main rallying point.
B. The Rationalization Principles
TESDA declared the following principles in the rationalization process:
PGMA’s 10-point Agenda. For the past 11 years, TESDA has brought the whole range of technical vocational education and training (TVET) programs and services to many people. In support of the President’s 10-point Agenda, TESDA is enhancing its systems and translates them into meaningful and tangible results to be able to contribute to the country’s development for the next six years.
Paradigm Shifts. The TESDA Board approved the five essential paradigm shifts of TESDA which embodied the strategies that guarantee an expanded provision of quality services to its clientele, partners and the people. The following are the five essential paradigm shifts that have been adopted:
- TESDA is aggressively pursuing a pro-active job matching process that guarantees the best fit of men and jobs. This paradigm shift embodies the strategies that will guarantee the best job fit, thereby sustaining employability and productivity. By training lookers for jobs, new jobs and more jobs (JNJMJ). TESDA will address the 6-10 million jobs envisioned by the President. TESDA shall SEEK (jobs) through domestic and international market intelligence reports to pinpoint exact requirements for the job vacancies. TESDA shall FIND (people) the right people who can be trained to fit the jobs in partnership with NGOs, social welfare agencies/institutions, schools and community organizations. TESDA shall TRAIN (people) using standards of quality for TVET developed in consultation with various industry sectors. TESDA also focuses on increasing productivity of implemented training programs by assisting individuals or groups who prefer to go into micro business, small and medium enterprises or entrepreneurship training.
- TESDA is progressively implementing a Ladderized Tertiary Education System in coordination with the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). This is consonant with the provision of EO 358;
- TESDA is adopting “Village Technologies” to strengthen community-based agri-fishery training for the development of livelihood skills and micro-enterprises;
- TESDAns involve themselves in voluntary community work towards promoting food self-sufficiency and generation by area-based self-employment opportunities. This is the “Plant for Life” project that embodies TESDA’s social responsibilities, and
- TESDA is putting in place an internal capability build-up through purposive Career Development Programs for TESDA staff.
It should be emphasized that the major strategy in the implementation of these paradigm shifts is TEAMWORK. TESDA shall, in cooperation of the various agencies, BLE/POEA/DOLE, DTI, DILG, DENR, CHED, DepEd, and the civil society hopes to create more opportunities for the advancement of the Filipino workforce.
Teamwork through collaboration with DOLE takes the form of interfacing activities along promotion of employment and manpower development to support employment promotion and employment facilitation services to clients. These strategies have been established through the development and maintenance of a computerized job matching facility accessible to all Public Employment Service Offices (PESOs) nationwide and the Philippine Overseas Labor Offices (POLOs) and a computerized national registry of skills, employment and business opportunities for easy access of its clients. For this purpose, the Phil-JobNet serves as the basic Labor Market Information System (LMIS) which shall be continuously enhanced and upgraded. Along with this initiative, TESDA and BLE with its Regional Offices implement the Kasanayan at Hanapbuhay (KasH) to strengthen and expand the existing employment facilitation service machinery of the administration.
Doing More with Less. Despite its scarce resources, TESDA commits itself to increase productivity and efficiency in the delivery of TVET programs and services.
No Fallout Policy. Secretary Augusto Boboy Syjuco has assured each and every TESDAn that everybody will be taken cared of and has committed to a “No Fallout Policy.” He stands firm in his commitment that all TESDAns are counted in. Likewise, the TESDA Core CMT emphasized the need to manage the “organizational change with a heart.” It underscores the importance of participation of the rank and file in the rationalization process.
Limited Relocation of Staff. While relocation is inevitable, the TESDA Rationalization Plan ensures that the effects of dislocation is minimized and appropriately addressed.
Life after TESDA. For those who opted to be separated from the service, there is life after TESDA. It has been ensured that retirement benefits are available to the retirees. TESDA shall harness and tap the capabilities of its retirees in its programs and projects to ensure that they will have productive post-retirement opportunities.
Manpower Downloading. Several studies underscore the need for TESDA to rationalize allocation between the central and the field offices not only of financial resources but human resources as well. Manpower requirements are to be downloaded to strengthen the field operations.
Consolidation/Networking of TESDA Training Delivery System. Likewise, the TESDA training institutions shall be networked within the context of TESDA Schools-cum-training centers and Training Centers-cum-schools to move towards a more effective and efficient delivery of programs and services. A committee under the stewardship of RD Washington M. Agustin crafted the Framework/Guidelines on the TESDA Training Institutions Delivery/Network System.
Participation and Ownership. This principle calls for the active participation of TESDA officials and the rank and file in the entire rationalization process. The bottom line is participation, consensus building and ownership. TESDA recognizes that this organizational change has to be owned and managed at all levels in the organization.
Upholding the Value of HR in the Organization. TESDA believes that its people are the most important asset of the organization. Thus, a sustained internal capability build-up program through a purposive career development for each TESDAn is being put in place. The Staffing/Manning component was taken care of by the respective officers of CMTs to ensure that the right people with the right competencies are matched with the right job in the organization.
C. The Rationalization Process
The preparation of the TESDA Rationalization Plan underwent a series of participative discussions at the different levels of the organization. Agreements from the different consultation-workshops, meetings, and conferences were integrated and served as major inputs in the Plan. It is a collaborative, collective effort of the management and the rank-and-file to redefine the ultimate role and the appropriate responses of TESDA in TVET.
Prior to the amendment of the composition of the Core Change Management Team (Core CMT) on May 19, 2005, the TESDA-ACE conducted a Rationalization Plan Workshop last April 12-14, 2005. A total of 63 officers and staff from TESDA’s central, regional and provincial offices, training centers and schools participated in the workshop on crafting a proposed organizational structure for TESDA. During the workshop, the participants were provided with inputs from different speakers. DOLE Assistant Secretary Ma. Anthonette Velasco-Allones discussed the salient points of EO 366. Mr. Harry A. Abrillo, a member of the three-man Independent Review Panel (IRP) presented the findings and recommendations of the five-year performance of TESDA from 1995 to 2000. Mr. Abrillo emphasized that the “heart and soul of TESDA is certification and closely intertwined with its registration and accreditation programs.” He added that TESDA should get away from direct training provision and should focus on its role as a manager, regulator, enabler, and a promoter of TVET. Mr. Ken Manson, a TESDA consultant and team leader of the Technical Education and Skills Development Project (TESDP) discussed the findings and recommendations of an Organizational Development Study, which he conducted in TESDA. Mr. Hilario Martinez presented the findings of the organizational diagnosis conducted by TESDA 2001 OD Standing Committee that suggested redefinition of the organizations functional structure. ED Clifford Paragua clarified some points in the proposed creation of a number of offices and the realignment and assignment of new and additional functions. Secretary Augusto Boboy Syjuco gave insights relative to the paradigm shifts of TESDA and emphasized that the crafting of the TESDA Rationalization Plan is a critical stage in the life of the organization.
The TESDA-ACE drew up a structure that was considered during the Interim CMT Study Group discussions last May 16, 2005 and National Directorate Conference held on May 17-19, 2005 wherein the recomposition of the Core CMT was recommended by the ND. Thus, the recomposed Core CMT has been chaired by DDG Milagros Dawa-Hernandez and co-chaired by EDs Agripina P. Zafra and Clifford A. Paragua. The members of the Core CMT include:
|1. ED Irene M. Isaac - Executive Office2. ED Elmer K. Talavera - Executive Office3. RD Valerio Rola - RD for Luzon
4. RD Ernesto Beltran - RD for Visayas
5. RD Roberto Braga - RD for Mindanao
6. PD Felisa Carag - PD for Luzon
7. PD Gaspar Gayona - PD for Visayas
8. PD Edwin Gatinao - PD for Mindanao
9. Mr. Roberto Niez - TI Luzon
10. Dr. Zenaida Fajardo - TI Visayas
|11. Dr. Francisco Dela Pena - TI Mindanao12. Mr. Lamberto Jos - TI Mindanao13. Ms. Laureana Marcos - ManCom
14. Mr. Elpidio Mamaril, Jr. - ManCom
15. Ms. Sonia Lipio - ACE Natl. Pres.
16. Mr. Artemio Pulido - ACE Luzon
17. Mr. Loreta Banario - ACE Visayas
18. Ms.June Tanquieng - ACE Mindanao
19. Ms. Ava Heidi Dela Torre - ACE Central Office
20. Ms. Ma. Veronica Sandoval - HRMD
The CMT’s functions include the following:
§ Conducts a strategic review of the operations and organization of all component units of the Authority;
§ Identifies functions, programs, activities, and projects which can be scaled down, phased out or abolished or those which need to be strengthened;
§ Prepares a Rationalization Plan;
§ Conducts consultation meetings with the affected personnel and other stakeholders;
§ Oversees the actual implementation of the Rationalization Plan;
§ Mitigates the impact of the rationalization effort; and,
§ Coordinates and consolidates the processes and outputs of the area CMTs.
Likewise, a secretariat for the Core CMT was also created to provide the much needed backstopping support through a TESDA Order.
TESDA’s rationalization efforts were intensified with the establishment of a network of Change Management Teams (CMTs) in various levels of the organization, i.e. Core CMT, Executive Office CMTs and Regional Office CMTs (CMT Advisory # 1 – May 25, 2005). This network served as a system with synchronized activities and facilitated active and timely exchange of information in the entire organization. Presentation materials on Managing Change and all other relevant references were discussed by respective Regional/Provincial Directors and Executive Directors with Area CMTs.
Area CMTs were established at the Executive and Regional Offices. The CMT for each Executive Office is composed of the Executive Director, Chiefs, Union Representatives, other Change Agents, and supported by a Secretariat. The CMT for each Regional Office is composed of the Regional and Provincial Directors, TI Administrators, Chiefs,
Union Representatives, Change Agents and supported by a Secretariat. Change agents were also identified to be part of the Team. A change agent is an enthusiast for change who can pass his/her enthusiasm to others. He/she takes pivotal role in the rationalization process. Each Area CMT was required to submit all of its consultation/meeting proceedings to the Core CMT secretariat for documentation/consolidation.
An orientation-briefing was conducted last June 1, 2005 by the DBM representative for TESDA Core CMT and shed light to some crucial issues on EO 366 and its implementing rules.
The Core CMT prepared the Communication Plan which has three major components – Rationalization, Retirement and Relocation (3Rs) that present the integrative flow of the imperatives and implications of the rationalization plan. This scheme facilitates transparency, openness, and active participation/involvement of TESDA officials and the rank and file in the rationalization process (planning, development and implementation).
TESDA’s proposed structure as agreed during the ND Conference on May 17-19, 2005 was presented to DOLE CMT last June 6, 2005 prior to the TESDA Organization-wide synchronized orientation/briefing held from June 8 to 10, 2005. TESDA employees were provided with a TESDA rationalization orientation kit for their reference.
On June 21, 2005, the TESDA Rationalization Staffing/Manning Activities and Guidelines were issued through CMT Advisory # 5. Area CMTs were advised to prepare their respective personnel inventory and matching of existing personnel per EO/RO/PO/TI and inventory of those who opt for retirement or relocation within and outside TESDA. The Core CMT members were tasked to assist the Area CMTs in one or more regional offices in the inventory of their manpower. The Core CMT members and their regional assignments:
PD Felisa Carag -
|Regions I, III and CAR||
Mr. Roberto Niez -
|Regions IV-A and V|
RD Valerio Rola -
Ms. Sonia Lipio -
PD Gaspar Gayona -
|Regions VI and VII||
Ms. Loreta Banario -
PD Edwin Gatinao -
Mr. Lamberto Jos -
Dr.FranciscoDela Pena -
Mr. Lamberto Jos -
|Regions IX,XI and XII|
PD Edwin Gatinao -
Mr. Elpidio Mamaril, Jr -
Ms. Ava Heidi dela Torre -
The Core CMT members presented the inventory and matching of existing personnel for the RO-PO-TI and the inventory for those who opted for relocation (within and outside TESDA) or for retirement during the Core CMT Meeting on June 27 to July 1, 2005. A number of issues were discussed and agreed upon to include among others the following:
1) Transparency shall be fully exercised as part of the process; 2) To facilitate the process, the principle of downloading to people in the RO-PO-TI shall be explained to the staff to allay possible anxiety; 3) Signatures of the Area CMTs are required along with each personnel/staff in the submission of manning; 4) Office functions shall be treated as fundamental and generic, including overlaps/duplications to be properly addressed; 5) Decentralization of the management of Staff Development Program (SDP), and 6) What to do with QMS in TESDA?
From then on, synchronized consultations-discussions and study groups were conducted as integral part of the rationalization process that led to the finalization of the Plan.
The TESDA CMT output as of July was submitted in the ND Conference last July 21, 2005. A discussion paper on the TESDA Rationalization Plan was presented that included the principles, proposed structure and staffing pattern. Focals per area (Luzon/Visayas/Mindanao) presented their respective tentative manning list. The ND agreed that in the second round of the rationalization plan preparation, the itemized plantilla positions shall be indicated.
On August 15-26, 2005, the Core CMT and the Human Resource Management Officers (HRMOs) of the TESDA Regional Offices did the finalization of the manning list for the RO-PO-TI. On August 18, 2005, the Appeals Committee was established through CMT Advisory # 13.
Finalization and packaging of the TESDA Rationalization Plan was conducted from August 27-September 12, 2005.
II. TESDA’s MANDATE
The “Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994” created TESDA under Republic Act. No.7796. The said Act integrated the functions of the former National Manpower and Youth Council (NMYC), the Bureau of Technical Vocational Education (BTVE) of the Department of Education, Culture, and Sports (DECS), and the Apprenticeship Program of the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE). The essence of TESDA’s existence is to enhance employability of the middle-level workforce through the provision of relevant, accessible, high quality and efficient technical education and skills development (TESD) responsive to and in accordance with the Philippine Development Goals and Objectives.
TESDA’s goals and objectives are very clear. They define the primary output of TESDA which is quality middle-level manpower who can cope up with the demand of global competitiveness. This entails acquisition of competencies at par with international standards including critical and creative thinking, as well as positive work attitudes and values.
These goals and objectives call for a Pro-Active TESDA that acts as catalyst in a labor-market directed, private sector-led and market-driven TVET.
III. TESDA’s VISION, MISSION and VALUE STATEMENT
The vision, mission, and value statement of TESDA express its highest aspirations and reasons for being and serve as the unifying framework for all its activities.
Vision. TESDA is the leading partner in the development of the Filipino workforce with world class competence and positive work values.
Mission. TESDA provides directions, policies, programs and standards towards quality technical education and skills development.
Value Statement. TESDA believes in demonstrated competence, institutional integrity, personal commitment and deep sense of nationalism.
IV. TESDA’s CORE BUSINESS
TESDA’s role in workforce development is defined by quality products and services in the areas of Direction Setting, Standards Setting and Systems Development, Support to TVET Provision, and Institutional Capacity Building which are its core business.
The TESDA’s Core Business is to provide national leadership in developing a skilled workforce in the country. Primarily, this involves ensuring sufficient provision of skilled workers and technicians to meet international work standards as well as the needs of local enterprises. It also includes ensuring access to technical education for the greater majority of the Filipinos.
Direction Setting. Central to TESDA’s role as an authority and national leader in TVET is being able to provide a clear sense of direction to the TVET sector.
Standards Setting and Systems Development. TESDA as a national leader shall be responsible for ensuring quality in all aspects of TVET. The key element is standards which refer not only to skills of the workforce and the TVET institutions but also to processes and systems adopted in the sector. These standards are benchmarks against which we can measure performances of workers and students, as well as TVET institutions.
Support to TVET Provision. TESDA is responsible to ensure that opportunities in TVET are available whether they are provided by the government or the private sector. As the Authority in TVET, TESDA provides technical supervision over the various public and private TVET providers. Focus shall be given in building the capability and capacity of TVET providers, including the LGUs, as well as providing scholarship to the beneficiaries.
Institutional Capacity Building. For TESDA to provide the required services and deliver its core business, it must have the internal capacity and capability. Therefore, Institutional CapacityBuilding is necessary to build its competencies along the different requirements of its direction setting, skills standards and systems development, and support to TVET provision responsibilities. This core business also involves the installation of TESDA Quality Management System at all levels and improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the different systems and processes in the organization.
2nd Cycle NTESDP 2005-2009. One major tangible output of TESDA under its Direction Setting concern is facilitating the crafting of the medium term plan for the TVET sector. The Plan defines the TESD response to the national development challenges of poverty alleviation through economic growth. It envisions a globally competent Filipino workforce able to produce quality products and services either in the domestic or overseas market. It commits to deliver improved access and equity in TVET, improved assessment and certification, and enhanced employability of TVET graduates.
TVET interventions are to be oriented towards social integration, rural development and global competitiveness. Core strategies include private-sector and market-driven TVET, pro-active job-skills matching, life-long learning mechanisms, expanded TVET scholarships and other support services, enhanced quality assurance mechanisms, entrepreneurship in TVET and convergence. These strategies and programs are crucial on the way TESDA configures the organization.
The TESDA Corporate Plan. TESDA’s work processes for the next ten years will be synergy from teamwork. Teamwork with public and private technical vocational institutions, enterprises, workers groups, LGUs, civil society organizations, national government agencies and other client groups.
TESDA’s role as enabler through formulation of policies, development of systems and standards in TVET shall be the dominant characteristic of TESDA for the next five years. Capability building programs shall be vigorously implemented to promote and sustain quality provision. The enabled partners are expected to expand their capability to facilitate the development of a more competent Filipino workforce.
TESDA is reconfigured in order to implement purposive capability building programs for the LGUs, the enterprises, the private TVIs, the NGOs and other National Government Agencies to assume more active role in workforce development
The TESDA HRD Plan. The Plan has lined up interventions towards committed and competent TESDAns. Aligned to TESDA’s belief that its people are the most important asset of the organization, the organization is putting in place a sustained internal capability build-up program through a purposive career development program for each TESDAn.
With all the efforts poured in the rationalization process, the expected result is a strengthened and revitalized TESDA manned by committed personnel with demonstrated competence and responsive to the roles of TESDA as a regulator, enabler, promoter and manager of the TVET Sector towards a globally competent Filipino Workforce.
V. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL SHIFTS
A. Existing Structure
Republic Act No. 7796 otherwise known as the Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994 created TESDA to promote and strengthen the quality of technical education and skills development program for international competitiveness and to meet the changing demands for quality middle-level manpower in the country. TESDA is an attached agency of the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) and the Authority is composed of a Board and a Secretariat. It is primarily responsible for the formulation, coordination and integration of TESD policies, plans and programs.
The TESDA Board is a multi-sectoral policy-making body, chaired by the Secretary of Labor and Employment and co-chaired by the Secretaries of Education and Trade and Industry. The Secretaries of Agriculture, Interior and Local Government as well as the Director General of the TESDA Secretariat, complete the government sector representatives. In addition, the President appointed representatives from the private sector, employer/industry organization, labor sector, and national associations of private technical vocational and training institutions.
The TESDA Secretariat on the other hand, is headed by a Director-General (DG) who exercises general supervision and control over its technical and administrative staff.
The Director-General is assisted by two Deputy Directors General (DDGs). One DDG is responsible for Policy and Planning and the other is responsible for Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET).
Likewise, the DG is assisted by the Chief of Services for Administration. The Office of the Chief of Services for Administration (OCSA) responds to logistics, safety and security requirements, physical facilities, provides legal services; and promotes the well-being of the organization’s personnel through its programs.
Also, under the direct supervision of the ODG is the International Project Development Unit (IPDU) which leads in project development, monitors and integrates all Official Development Assistance (ODA).
The presence of a TESDA Board Secretariat also reporting to the DG but closely interfacing with both TESDA Board and TESDA Secretariat Offices, facilitates the staff support requirement of the TESDA Board.
The ODDG for Policy and Planning Cluster is headed by Deputy Director General Milagros Dawa-Hernandez. Under this Cluster are two Executive Offices:
- The Planning Office (PO) designs and establishes planning processes and methodologies to enhance the efficiency of resource allocation decisions within the TESD Sector. It conducts researches, studies for effective and efficient planning and policy making within the sector; and monitors and analyzes labor market information among others.
- The Skills Standards and Certification Office (SSCO) develops and establishes a national system of skills standardization, testing and certification in the country; establishes and implements systems of accrediting private enterprises, group of workers’ association and public institutions; conducts researches and develops competency standards; and develops curriculum exemplars, program standards and learning materials.
The ODDG for Technical Vocational Education and Training Cluster is headed by DDG Santiago M. Yabut, Jr. Under this Cluster are four Executive Offices:
- The Office of Formal Technical Vocational Education and Training (OFTVET) provides policies, measures and guidelines for effective and efficient administration of formal TVET; establishes and maintains a system for accrediting, coordinating, integrating, monitoring and evaluating the different formal TVET programs vis-à-vis the national technical education and skills development plan; and establishes and maintains a network of institutions engaged in institutionalized technical vocational education and training, particularly with local government units.
- The Office of the Non-Formal Technical Vocational Education and Training (ONFTVET) provides directions, policies and guidelines for effective implementation of non-formal community-based technical vocational education and training; and accredits, coordinates, monitors and evaluates various non-formal TVET programs in various institutions.
- The Office of Apprenticeship (OA) provides directions, policies and guidelines in the implementation of the apprenticeship system and accredits, coordinates, monitors and evaluates all apprenticeship schemes and programs implemented by various institutions and enterprises conducting apprenticeship schemes and programs.
- The National Institute for Technical Vocational and Education Training (NITVET) serves as the research and development arm of the government in the field of technical vocational education and training; develops curricula and program standards; develops and implement an integrated program for continuing development of trainers, teachers and instructors within the technical education and skills development sector; and develops programs and projects which will build up institutional capabilities within the sector.
Under the direct control of the Director-General are the Regional Offices (ROs) which are headed by a Regional Director. The ROs serve as the Secretariat to the Regional Technical Education Skills Development Committees (RTESDCs). The ROs provide effective supervision, coordination and integration of technical education and skills development programs and projects and related activities in their respective jurisdictions and likewise develop and recommend TESDA programs for regional and local-level implementation within the policies set by the Authority.
The Provincial Offices (POs) headed by a Provincial Director are also directly under the control of the Director General. They serve as the Secretariat to the Provincial Technical Education Skills Development Committees (PTESDCs). The POs provide technical assistance particularly to LGUs for effective supervision, coordination and integration of technical education and skills development programs and projects within their localities and review and recommend TESDA programs for implementation within their localities.
Structural and Functional Shift
The shift underscores the merger of plans, policies and systems into one cluster. This defining shift in the governance of TVET has been clearly positioned under the Sectoral TVET Cluster. On the other hand, the enabling role of the Authority is lodged under the Field Operations Cluster. This is exemplified in the development function of the OTTI through TTIOD which signals the trainer development requirement of TTIs and to be implemented by NTTDI. Such programs in the field are expected to be efficiently synchronized and coordinated by RCO.
B. Rationalized Structure
The rationalized Organizational Structure of TESDA is a collective output of the TESDA management and the rank and file. The new structure aspires to realign TESDA’s functions as an Authority that will be more effective, market-driven, and private sector-led. The structure is referenced to what the organization affirmed and determined to do as a collective decision.
The two Offices of the Deputy Directors General (ODDGs) have been restructured considering the balance in the developmental work in one cluster and the integration and harmonization of field operations work in the other.
First is the ODDG for Sectoral TVET which has three Executive Offices:
- Planning Office (PO) - designs and establishes planning processes and methodologies to enhance the efficiency of resource allocation decisions within the TESD Sector. It conducts researches, studies for effective and efficient planning and policy making within the sector and monitors and analyzes labor market information among others.
- TVET Systems Development Office (TSDO) - provides directions, policies, measures and guidelines for effective and efficient administration of formal, non-formal, community-based and enterprise-based TVET programs implemented by various institutions, LGUs and enterprises; establishes and maintains systems for registering, accrediting, coordinating, integrating, monitoring and evaluating TVET programs, etc.
Qualifications and Standards Office (QSO) - develops and establishes a national system of skills standardization, testing and certification in the country; establishes and implements systems of accrediting private enterprises, group of workers’ associations and public institutions; conducts researches and develops competency standards and develops curriculum exemplars, program standards and learning materials.
Under this cluster, the decision to simplify the similar functions of OFTVET, ONFTVET and the Office of Apprenticeship led to the integration of functions and programs of the three offices into one office or through the creation of the TSDO. The QSO on the other hand, was proposed based on recommendations from past studies to adopt continuous improvement as well as expedite the development of Competency Standards (CS) and promulgate Training Regulations (TRs) in a more systematized and efficient manner.
In the proposed set-up, one Executive Office takes care of facilitating the development of Competency Standards, Training Designs and Competency Assessment Instruments to address the efficiency concerns in the current set-up. With QSO, it will ensure that Assessment Instruments are available even before the promulgation of TRs.
The ODDG for Field Operations will have the following offices under it:
- Regional Coordination Office (RCO) – integrates national policies into regional/provincial operations; coordinates and monitors programs and projects at the regional/provincial level; and monitors resources generated and utilized. Under this new Executive Office are the network of ROs and the POs of TESDA.
- Regional Offices (ROs) – serve as secretariat to RTESDCs; provide effective supervision, coordination and integration of TESD programs, projects and related activities in their respective jurisdictions; and develop and recommend TESDA programs for regional and local-level implementation within the policies set by the Authority.
- Provincial Offices (POs) – serve as secretariat to PTESDCs; provide technical assistance particularly to LGUs for effective supervision, coordination, integration and monitoring of TVET programs within their localities; review and recommend TESDA programs for implementation within their localities; coordinate programs of private schools and assessment centers; and establish network of institutions, LGUs and enterprises implementing the TVET programs.
- Office for TESDA Technology Institutions (OTTI) – manages the implementation of program priorities and policies in the TESDA institutions; harmonizes national policies with area requirements into program offerings of the TIs; and recommends policies for the enhancement of the efficiency in the management and operations of the TIs.
- TESDA Women’s Center (TWC) – provides vocational training for women; undertakes researches and development; organizes and conducts symposia/seminars and other related activities on gender issues in collaboration with NGOs and other relevant organizations.
- National TVET Trainers Development Institute (NTTDI) – develops and implements an integrated program for continuing development of trainers, teachers and instructors; and implements programs which build up institutional capabilities within the TESD sector.
- Specialized Centers (SCs) – provide vocational training on specialized programs; undertake research and development to improve service delivery in the center; organize and conduct symposia/seminars and other related activities.
- TESDA Technology Institutions (TTIs) - TESDA has several Technology Institutions (TTIs) or also known as the TESDA Administered Schools (TAS) and Training Centers(TCs). The TCs are further classified into Regional Training Centers (RTCs) or Provincial Training Centers (PTCs) that broadly define their service areas.
The TTIs provide responsive formal and non-formal TVET programs; conduct applied research and development and conduct outreach programs in coordination with ROs/POs.
For 2005, the TTIs are directed to transition as a flexible TVET delivery network to maximize their presence in the area, optimize the use of their resources and to address the issue that TVET programs are costlier compared to college courses. This shall mean transforming the TAS also as training centers with short-term course offerings while TCs shall also offer long-term programs similar to TAS program offerings. With the transformation is the expectation that government- ran institutions shall be less costly, catering to a wider client base and perform better as government institutions. The TTIs are also expected to implement Village Technologies and Community-Based training programs to further enhance the productivity in the rural areas especially for the agriculture and the fisheries sector.
The intended devolution of the training function of TESDA as stipulated in its law has often been a concern in TVET. The TESDA Board has passed a resolution in 2004 adopting a “Progressive Decentralization” as a scheme to devolve TESDA’s training function to partners. A number of TESDA Technology Institutions planned out a decentralization within a period of 30 years or until such time when the prospective partners are ready to assume management of the training delivery system.
It should be noted that the TESDA Development Fund, supposed to be the main source in enhancing the capability of the LGUS to eventually take on the training function responsibility failed to support the undertaking. With the TESDA’s meager corporate resources, the capability of prospective partners shall still be pursued consistent with the intents of the 2nd Cycle National Technical Education Skills Development Plan (NTESDP), 2005-2009.
Under the second cluster, the proposal to create the RCO was based on the need to improve the coordination, synchronization of the implementation of programs, policies, standards and systems at the field level. It also aims to ensure that one office takes care of benchmarking field level best practices with the end in view of enhancing field level performance as a consolidated and integrated effort.
Also under the said cluster are all training delivery mechanisms within TESDA and this restructuring is expected to give focus to the continuous improvement of TESDA-ran training institutions. Through the creation of the OTTI, TESDA-ran institutions are expected to ultimately produce highly competitive graduates at reasonable cost. Under this cluster is the National TVET Trainers Institute (NTTDI), which is also envisioned to undertake the incubation of new training systems developed and as core developer of quality trainers.
The broken line connecting the Regional/Provincial Offices with the TESDA Technology Institutions highlights the area management principle and role (i.e. technical supervision role) of the Regional and Provincial Directors over the TESDA Technology Institutions (TTIs) in response to the requirements of the area. Likewise, it is incumbent upon the OTTI to render administrative and technical supervision over the TTIs to ensure more efficiency in the delivery of the TTIs’ programs and services.
Under the direct supervision of the Office of the Director General are the following offices/units:
- Competency Assessment and Certification Office (CACO) – develops and establishes a national system of competency assessment and certification in the country, leads in the development of competency assessment instruments on the basis of officially promulgated training regulations; develops and maintains a competency system based on the Philippine TVET Qualifications Framework (PTQF). The functions of this office partly takes off from the former SDCO and shall now focus on the implementation of Assessment and Certification function of TESDA. It will be positioned directly under the ODG, to be headed by an Executive Director and to work closely with a network of National Sectoral Assessment and Certification Boards.
- Office of the Chief for Services and Administration (OCSA) – responds to logistics, safety and security requirements, physical facilities, provides legal services; promotes the well-being of the organization’s personnel through its program.
- Corporate Affairs Office (CAO) -leads in the development of the corporate and investment plans; manages the corporate quality management system; monitors and maintains the corporate management information system and information technology infrastructure; develops and manages the corporate social marketing and advocacy program, leads in the legislative liaisoning and coordination; leads in project development; oversees monitoring across projects; and integrates and synchronizes all the ODA (Official Development Assistance). This new office shall be focused on the Corporate Planning efforts of the organization with the provision of an advocacy framework to ensure guidance of all the TESDA operating units in better communicating to its clientele all its products and services. This Office shall be headed by a Director III.
- Internal Audit Division (IAD) – Consistent with RA 3456 and as amended by RA 4177, there shall be created, organized and operated in all government agencies an Internal Audit Service (IAS). As TESDA’s response, there shall be an IAD which shall assist management to achieve efficient and effective fiscal administration and performance of agency affairs and functions and it shall network with focal staff for each operating unit in the organization.
A more detailed presentation of the function per office and at the division level can be found in Annex A.
VI. RATIONALIZED STAFFING PATTERN
The Central Office has 495 or 11.18% of the total number of plantilla positions (4,427) in TESDA. Under the Rationalization Plan, the Central Office only represents 405 of the total or 9.26% of the total plantilla positions.
Based on the position title description, the existing TESDA manning pattern comprising of 4,427 employees is dominated by the technical positions with 57.28% supported by 38.78% administrative staff. Under the Rationalization Plan, there is a net increase of 34 technical staff and a reduction of 92 administrative staff. There is a proposed increase in the technical staff (68) for the Field Operations (RO-PO-TI) and a reduction of 34 in the Central Office. For administrative positions, there is a planned reduction of 56 administrative positions (26.67%) in the Central Office and a reduction of 36 positions (2.39%) in Field Operations.
The Rationalization Plan staffing pattern summary of results depict a change from the existing total TESDA Plantilla Positions of 4,427 to (4,375) personnel, a net reduction of 1.2 percent. There was a reduction of 90 personnel from the Central Office from its original 495 plantilla positions or a reduction of 18.18%. More than a fourth (26.67%) of the existing number of administrative staff and about 13.55% of the technical personnel of the Central Office has either been transferred or rendered redundant under EO 366. The Field Operations increased from 3,932 to (3,970) or a net increase of (38) personnel or about one percent of its original manpower complement.
Details of the staffing/manning list shall be presented in the attached manning list per operating unit.
At the field level, the staffing pattern for Provincial Offices (POs) is equitably expanded in recognition of the varying magnitude of operations per area. Several studies point out the need for POs to enhance its manning support to better respond to area needs. With the rationalization effort, and consistent with the principle of manpower decentralization or downloading from the CO to the field level, the POs shall be the main focus of the expansion effort. Equitywise, each PO shall have a minimum staffing of 9 personnel and with additional staff corresponding to the number of Congressional Districts covered per Provincial Office (PO)/ District Office (DO). Also, in recognition of the creation of the Sibugay Province in Region IX (Zamboanga del Sur) by virtue of RA 8973 on July 2000, the creation of TESDA Sibugay with corresponding manpower complement (permanent plantilla items) shall be proposed.
To maintain an adequate manpower complement in all TESDA TIs and consistent with the agreement of TI Administrators, Regional Directors and Provincial Directors a total of 10 non-teaching personnel was proposed per TI. All teaching staff on the other hand, shall be retained in their respective assignments respecting the provisions of the Magna Carta for Public School Teachers.
VII. Rationalized Personnel Complement
The rationalized structure shown above indicates the manpower complement distribution throughout the whole organization. Deriving this level of personnel complement and distribution was not an easy task. This has gone through a series of central and areal consultations and requiring the arduous process of addressing contentious issues especially so that it concerns the future and stakes of each TESDAn.
As a core strategy in developing the RationalizationPlan, TESDA employed optimization of its existing personnel to address areas of need rather than take the path of “lean and mean strategy.”
As a consequence of central and areal consultations with the different operating units of TESDA via Core and Area CMTs, the proposed TESDA structure has been decided to be manned from the available manpower primarily based on the existing plantilla positions per the TESDA PSIPOP (2004).
VIII RATIONALIZATION PLAN SUMMARY
As a whole, from the 4,427 available plantilla positions, the rationalization plan manning complement called for a total of (4,375) personnel. This increase of 1.2% is in view of the additional requirement of the field offices/units particularly in consideration of the recently added KorPhil Training Centers in Davao City, Guiguinto and Quezon City plus the creation of the Sibugay Provincial Office.
A total of 93 personnel (mostly Salary Grade 11 and below) signified to avail themselves of the retirement benefits under E.O. 366.
(Thirty-four) existing vacant items in the pool were considered for a “scrap and build strategy” to address allocation requirement in high priority areas where additional or new manpower complement are deemed necessary.
To sum up, the entire TESDA system has no excess warm bodies in the excess pool. Forty-one new position titles shall still be requested from DBM as additional PS budget allocation. Definitely, major prioritization decisions still stand in the rationalization process.
A. Providing Equitable Manning Via Scrap and Build Strategy
In the rationalization process, there were (34) (i.e. 10 from the Central Office and (24) from ROs) vacant items in the pool that were considered for “scrap and build strategy” as proposed by respective Area CMTs. The (24) positions from the ROs all came from the TAS.
The feasibility of the “scrap and build proposals” of Area CMTs was assessed largely on the total peso values of the items to be scrapped against the total peso value of items proposed to be built. Corresponding adjustments on the proposals were made.
It was around this juncture that the decision to just maintain the two Offices of Deputy Directors General instead of the earlier position of having four ODDGs was made. There is just not enough PS budget to fund the required ten positions to man those offices.
The Core CMT decided that the “Built” items from the ROs will be retained by the ROs but to be placed in areas where there is identified need (e.g. Regional Offices, the Provincial Offices, the RTCs and the PTCs). All the (14) items built from the (24) RO items were returned to the ROs. It should also be noted that there are two vacant excess items in TESDA IV-B (i.e. AA III and ADA VI) that were allotted to the Regional Office.
Six of the seven vacant positions in the Central Office were given outright to the Field Offices and one to the Legal Division. The remaining ten vacant positions were scrapped to build six positions to address the needs of the Central Office (i.e. for Legal, IAD, and ODG).
The existing staff is heavily burdened with different legal responsibilities such as representation, research work and investigative functions, so, additional plantilla positions are being proposed.
B. Retiring Personnel Under EO 366
There are 93 personnel retiring under EO 366. Of the said total, 20 are from the Central Office and the rest (73) are from the TTIs. This will require a total budget of P 11,081,454.45 to provide for the incentives indicated under E.O. 366 excluding other benefits.
C. Addressing 41 Additional Position Requirements
The existing resources of TESDA are not enough to address the requirements of the Rationalization Plan. Due to limited plantilla positions and owing to the stringent requirement of the competencies in some technical positions, there are a number of critical positions that are not yet addressed. It is in this light that TESDA is proposing 41 items for appropriating funding support.
Sibugay Provincial Office. Sibugay is the only province where TESDA has no regular manning complement. It is an island province in Region IX created in year 2000 and has one congressional district.
The KorPhil Vocational Training Center. These centers are part of the grant of the Korean government.
KorPhil Davao addresses the concerns for integrated agro-industrial machinery trades to support productivity in agro-fisheries in Mindanao. It consists of a $5M grant in terms of buildings, equipment and capability build-up programs. The building is situated inside the RTC XI campus. The KPVTC should be integrated into the RTC XI system. The existing RTC XI staff and those that are being proposed (11 items) shall comprise the manning complement of KorPhil Davao.
KorPhil Bulacan, a $.5M training facility, is likewise integrated into the system of RTC Guiguinto Bulacan. This center offers specialized programs in ICT. Similar to the arrangements for KorPhil Davao, it shall be manned by the existing RTC Guiguinto personnel with four additional trainers proposed.
KorPhil Quezon City is a $3.5 M facility for ICT. It is situated in a government property owned by the local government unit. It shall be treated as another TESDA Provincial TrainingCenter in ICT. It is proposed that KPVTC Quezon City be provided with 14 additional staff.
Part of the human resource management challenge in developing a credible rationalization plan is the big hurdle of getting an accurate human resource database especially at the field operations level. Nonetheless, the Core CMT, the HRMOs and the CMT Secretariat did their best in laboriously reviewing all the Area CMT database submissions to ensure that all TESDAns are accounted for.
Another hurdle in the human accounting process, is the host of tough decisions to make between the existing manning complement and the rationalized level. The process also considers the intents of EO 366 and minimizing possible negative impact of the Rationalization Plan.
Going through the iterative process of consultation from top to bottom and vice versa made the process less painful, especially in such decisions as reassignment of some staff to address manpower equity requirements in some localities/areas, scrapping some position items in favor of building other more critical position items that will be more relevant to the the organization, and ensuring that some new units (i.e. Sibugay Provincial Office and Kor-Phil Training Centers) are provided with adequate staff to enable these units to provide quality service to clients.
Major decisions in developing the Rationalization Plan were guided by the following Rationalization Principles:
|PGMA’s Ten-point Agenda||This is the ultimate goal that TESDA would like to address in the rationalization process.|
|Paradigm Shifts||These are the key shifts identified by TESDA to expand its provision of quality programs and services.|
|Doing More with Less||Another focus of the rationalization process is addressing the internal efficiency in TESDA’s frontline services particularly TESDA’s Technology Institutions.|
|No Fallout||Declaration of redundant positions was not done unilaterally. Such was endorsed by the respective Area CMTs and forwarded to the Core CMT for final decision.|
|Limited Relocation of Staff||There were about 500 TESDA personnel who were moved from their existing stations to another. More than ten percent.|
|Life after TESDA||The EO 366 components respective to this are yet to be implemented. Likewise,TESDA in cooperation with other agencies has a role to play in that component for government employees affected by EO 366.|
|Manpower Downloading||The Central Office allowed 62 of its existing staff to transfer to the ROPOTI. Six of its excess vacant positions were given to the ROPOTI. This redounds to about 68 positions or about 15 percent of its 495 plantilla positions.|
|Consolidation/Networking of TESDA Training Delivery System||The agreed standard for the administrative manpower complement of the TTIs (TAS, RTCs and PTCs) provided solutions/guides to a lot of decisions in the Rationalization Plan for the TTIs. The networking arrangement was reflected in a number of institutions. The networking arrangement of PTCs Cebu and Bohol were examples where the application of networking was applied in the Rationalization Plan.|
|Participation and Ownership||The participation of the Area CMTs, the shepherding done by some members of the Core CMTs to other areas is a key to this. The Area CMTs endorsed their respective manning lists.|
|Upholding the Value of HR in the Organization||This will be attained more in the next steps to take.|
Corollarily, the Rationalization Plan was founded on TESDA’s commitment to the TVET sector and to its internal clients and these are all embodied in the Rationalization Plan Framework. It is anchored on TESDA’s mandate, guided by its corporate vision, driven by its corporate mission and challenged by its commitment to the TVET sector (NTESDP), the organization (CorPlan) and to its people (HRD Plan).
Benefits of the Rationalization Plan
At the very least, after 11 years, TESDA has a complete database of TESDA COROPOTI personnel. TESDA’s information system should improve with respect to the HR database. The establishment of updated data from the field was made possible by the field HRMOs who came to the Central Office (for 2 weeks) and brought all the records of the field units.
If this rationalization plan will be implemented, this will entail the reassignment of some people to beef up the requirements of field operations. This move will stand to benefit more field clientsneeding quality programs and services.
The principle - Life-After-TESDA was anchored in one of the components of EO 366 which is in preparation for government employees who will be affected. Such packages as skills training and entrepreneurship development are among those interventions the EO promised. TESDA will have to assist the 93 TESDA personnel retiring along these program packages and not to mention the additional monetary benefit which can be utilized as capital for would-be entrepreneurs. Host of thousands of workers who will opt to retire from other government agencies are likely to benefit from TESDA’s program packages (i.e. skills training and entrepreneurship) in cooperation/coordination with other national government agencies.
One thing we can do internally is the implementation of our HRD Plan. Definitely, there should be continuous enhancement or proper retooling of personnel competencies to be at par with their prospective assignments as an offshoot of the Rationalization Plan.
Immediate Next Steps
The Appeals System will have to be nurtured. The guidelines on EO 366 Appeals mechanism seem to imply that such a system will ensue as an offshoot of the submission of the Rationalization Plan. TESDA has issued advisories on the creation of an appeals structure parallel to the CMT network, indeed, but such structure has to be made operational or else, the gains of the Rationalization Plan could be jeopardized. (Most of the appeals are in the area of retirement under EO 366 for positions SG 12 and above).
The elders in the TESDA Rationalization Plan should come together not to celebrate, not to pat their backs but look into the post-plan effects to the organization. It should be realized that not all are satisfied with the results of any change process. This Rationalization Plan is no different. The scars inflicted in the process have to be reckoned with. TESDA should be a lot stronger as an organization after the implementation of the plan. TESDA needs to be better.
Like any other plan, many organizations ended up exhibiting a “ningas cogon” trait once the plan is finished. There were a lot of interventions before that were just done for compliance. If TESDA is to move as a learning organization, it should allow the change process to be TESDA’s way of life.
The rationalization process should not only be a one-shot intervention process but it should be part and parcel of TESDA’s continuous improvement process towards QUALITY TVET programs and services.